History and Provenance
The tomato is native to South America. Genetic evidence shows the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit and a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. One species, Solanum lycopersicum, was transported to Mexico where it was grown and consumed by Mesoamerican civilizations. The exact date of domestication is not known. The first domesticated tomato may have been a little yellow fruit, similar in size to a cherry tomato, grown by the Aztecs. The word tomato comes from the Aztec tomatl, literally “the swelling fruit”.
Many historians believe that the Spanish explorer Cortés may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan, now Mexico City, in 1521. Others believe Christopher Columbus, a Genoese working for the Spanish monarchy, was the first European to take back the tomato, as early as 1493. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in an herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli, an Italian physician and botanist who named it pomo d’oro, or “golden apple”.
Peoples of diverse regions used the fruit in their cooking; it was cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500 BC. The large, lumpy tomato, a mutation from a smoother, smaller fruit, originated in Mesoamerica and may be the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes.
After the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. They also took it to the Philippines, from where it spread to Southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates, and cultivation began in the 1540s. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced, and was certainly being used as food by the early 17th century in Spain. In certain areas of Italy, such as Florence, the fruit was used solely as a tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century.
Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard, a barber-surgeon. He believed that it was poisonous, in fact, the plant and raw fruit do have low levels of tomatine, but are not generally dangerous; Gerard’s views were influential, and the tomato was considered unfit for eating for many years in Britain and its North American colonies.
By the mid-18th century, tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain, and before the end of that century, the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was “in daily use” in soups, broths, and as a garnish. In Victorian times, cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses.
The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710, when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. By the mid-18th century, they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations, and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time; and in general, they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. Several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers, particularly Florida and California. In California, tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing.
How to grow Tomatoes and their best season
Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States. Tomatoes do not really have a season and can be found in any supermarket, greenmarket, and grocery store any day without problem. The grow in almost every country and even in “hot houses/green houses. They unfortunately are picked when they are green (unripe) and then they are ripened in storage with ethylene. Unripe tomatoes are firm, as they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process.
Relationship with Target Audience
Tomatoes can be cooked, served, and seen in diverse ways. It is a common vegetable fruit to see around and young people might be able to eat it or mix it with food they like. Tomatoes are very healthy and it reflects automatically in your body and daily life. This website shows the properties of tomatoes: http://healthmad.com/nutrition/10-health-benefits-of-tomatoes/
Tomatoes make you loose weight in a very fast and efficient way, they give a heavy feeling to the body and diminish hunger while they don’t increase your weight.
Anti-oxidant: Tomatoes contain a lot of vitamins A and C, mostly because of beta-carotene, and these vitamins act as an anti-oxidant, working to neutralize dangerous free radicals in the blood stream. These dangerous free radicals can cause cell damage. And keep in mind, the more red the tomato, the more beta-carotene it contains. Also, remember that cooking destroys much of vitamin C, so stick with raw tomatoes for these benefits.
Diabetes: Tomatoes also have plenty of the mineral chromium, which helps diabetics to keep their blood sugar level under control.
Smoking: No, tomatoes can’t help you stop smoking, but what they can do is to help reduce the damage smoking does to your body. Tomatoes contain chlorogenic acid and coumaric acid, which help to fight against some of the carcinogens brought about by cigarette smoke.
Vision: Because of all that vitamin A, tomatoes are also an excellent food to help improve your vision. This also means tomatoes can help your eyes be better about night blindness.
Heart troubles: Due to potassium and vitamin B, tomatoes help to lower blood pressure and to lower high cholesterol levels. This, in turn, could help prevent strokes, heart attack and other potentially life-threatening heart problems.
Skin care: Because of high amounts of lycopene, a substance found in many of the more expensive over-the-counter facial cleansers, tomatoes are great for skin care.
Hair: Remember all that vitamin A in tomatoes? Well, it’s good for keeping your hair strong and shiny, and its also good for your eyes, teeth, skin and bones.
Cancer: Various studies have shown that because of all that lycopene in tomatoes, the red fruit helps to lessen the chances of prostate cancer in men, and also reduces the chance of stomach cancer and colorectal cancer. Lycopene is considered somewhat of a natural miracle anti-oxidant that may help to stop the growth of cancer cells. And, interestingly enough, cooked tomatoes produce more lycopene than do raw tomatoes, so enjoy that tomato soup!
Bones: Tomatoes have a fair amount of vitamin K and calcium, both of which help to strengthen and possibly repair in minor ways bones and bone tissue.
Kidney stones and gallstones: Eating tomatoes without the seeds has been shown in some studies to lessen the risk of gallstones and kidney stones.
The presence of antioxidants in tomatoes is said to be helpful in cleansing toxic compounds from the body. Those who eat raw tomatoes have been found to be at a much lesser risk of developing rectal, colon or stomach cancer. Being a natural antiseptic, tomatoes can help protect the body against various common infections. Studies have shown that consumption of tomatoes and tomato based products may prevent serum lipid oxidation and reduce the risk of macular degenerative disease. Tomatoes can also help the body prevent diarrhea and soothe eye irritation as well. Tomatoes have been found to have positive effects in case of ailments like constipation, diabetes, indigestion, intestinal disorders and jaundice. Pregnant women, suffering from morning sickness, will benefit from tomato consumption.
Other Uses Of Tomatoes
The best way to use tomatoes for skin care is to peel a bunch of them, eight to twelve, then lay back and place the tomato skins on your face (or other skin areas). Make sure the inside of the tomato skins are against your skin, and let this sit for at least 10 minutes. Then wash off. You’re face will be cleaner and more shiny, though it also might be a little red from the tomatoes. Don’t worry, that red on your face will wear away.
When applied topically, tomato pulp can help heal sunburn, wounds and sores.
Beauty places use tomatoes as a base in facials and body treatments. Tomatoes tend to reduce acne and dull skin as well as protect and heal the skin after the sunbathing.
Tomato is a good source of calcium and iron. It also contains some amounts of phosphorus, sulfur and potassium. Tomato is rich in vitamin C and contains some vitamin B and vitamin A. The vitamin C content increases as the vegetable ripens.
Calorific Content of Tomato: 100 g of tomato contains only 20 calories. These calories are easy to absorb by the body. The low calorie content of tomato makes it a favorite of obese people. It is often recommended in weight loss programs as it provides you some of the essential minerals and vitamins, fills your stomach and does not add calories to your body.
The nutritional value of tomato makes it good for weight loss, obesity, eye disorders, night blindness, urinary tract infection, liver disorders, jaundice, indigestion, morning sickness, constipation, diarrhea, intestinal disorders, and diabetes. It also helps in cleansing the body of toxic compounds.
Where to Store tomatoes, and How long do they Last
Tomatoes can be stored in the fridge or outside in the kitchen counter. They usually last longer if they are in the fridge, but some people consume them daily and prefer to use them as decorations in plates. It is also said that by placing tomatoes in the fridge, the taste changes completely and it is not as beneficial or tasty.
Tomatoes last depending on the type you buy. Organic tomatoes tend to last less than supermarket tomatoes that have gone through chemical processes and have been genetically modified. There are so many tomato varieties that it really depends on the type, where you bought it, organic, etc. They can last from 5 days to three weeks.
Successfully Growing Tomatoes in NYC
Tomatoes are plants that need space to grow (not so much as height but as width) and they need at least seven hours of direct sunlight. Since they are a fruit, they need lots of sunlight and if they do not have it, the green leaves and stems will grow a lot but the fruits will not turn up. They barely need pruning and they need to be watered constantly so the soil is most of the time humid. I think tomatoes could be grown in New York city between spring and autumn since it is usually sunny. In a rooftop community or if you have a small balcony it should work, since it does not actually take up much room, and you need to control the water quantities and maybe mix it fertilizers, minerals, etc. You just need a small lawn, the seeds, sunlight, heat (tomatoes love heat), water, pruning, maybe minerals and fertilizers. We need to consider that every tomato variety has different needs. Tomatoes harvest between 55 days to 100 days.
REFERENCES USED AND INTERESTING RELATED WEBSITES:
Profile of Target Audience
My target audiences are 12-16 year olds, especially girls. I think this is the typical age when girls start developing and they are really starting to be adolescence. I remember this age in my life very difficult because every single girl was obsessed with her weight. I remember every lunch at school following magazine diets and being very concern with my clothes sizes and physical appearance. Throughout the time, I discovered that all my friends and me wanted to look very thin and thought that by not eating barely anything we could achieve this.
I want my campaign to show teenage girls “How to Eat well” and at the same time stay fit and healthy. My campaign needs to show the importance of having the right nutrition and what your body needs. It is all based in wellbeing while having to study, deal with friendships, family, and a stressful daily life. Normally at this age, teenagers are very complicated, hate everything, and think they are right and feel misunderstood, and want to experiment. Everyone deals with bad days and unfortunately most teenagers do not get the best nutrition, or the one that their body desperately needs. My target lives in the city- no specific neighborhood (upper east and midtown). My target audience read a lot of fashion magazines, health magazines, gossip magazines, and are very influenced by the media and their peers. They look up upon gossip girl and America’s next top model actresses, celebrities like Lindsey Lohan, Paris Hilton, Olivia Palermo, and models. They take the train together to school or some even walk to school
The age group is the hardest to reach because they feel that most campaigns are stupid, retarded, and not directed towards them. In order to reach them, I plan to make a very mature campaign where the “eating ritual” is meant to respect you and your body. The benefits of eating tomatoes, which are incredibly good for your body, beauty, and diet. I want to express ways to eat tomatoes in interesting and unique ways.
– “Tomato-the key to a New You”
– “Tomatoes They Are not A Vegetable, they are a Fruit”
– “Tomatoes made in every color to match your bag”